In the wake of large Hurricanes such as Sandy and Katrina, US cities are acutely aware that organizations that work at the neighborhood level will be on the front line of meeting the needs residents in the hours, days and weeks after a major event. Therefore it is essential that cities work to enhance their capacity to meet the needs of their existing constituency and be able to participate in a spontaneous neighborhood wide effort to provide care and support to all residents.
San Francisco’s Neighborhood Empowerment Network has been piloting a program that supports communities as they work to achieve a pre-event condition that will allow them to perform at the highest level in times of stress. Entitled the Empowered Communities Program (ECP), the initiative is modeled after the core tenets of FEMA’s Whole Community Approach.
San Francisco piloted the ECP in the Fall of 2012 in partnership with the Diamond Heights community to engage in a comprehensive cross sector effort to increase the neighborhood’s overall resilience. The lead NEN agencies providing the community technical support were SF CARD and the City Administrator’s Office.
The framework of this effort has now been converted into a scalable framework and is being deployed in other high risk communities across the City.
ECP’s Featured Neighborhoods
In early 2013, a group of Bayview non-profits, small businesses, faith based, residents and City Agency stakeholders came together around a vision for the Bayview that advances a future rich in social & economic opportunity and success for the residents and businesses. The program ultimately took the name “Resilient Bayview”.
Over the course of the ensuing months, the program members worked intensely to inventory and prioritize the goals and objectives for the various community stakeholders who are committed to making the Bayview a great place to live, work and visit.
In 2015, a cohort of organizations along San Francisco’s famed Brotherhood Way reached out to Supervisor Norman Yee’s office for support in creating a disaster resilience plan for their community. The Supervisor’s Office reached out and partnered with the City’s Neighborhood Empowerment Network (NEN) to leverage its expertise in supporting communities as they draft and implement culturally competent Resilience Action Plans. By implementing its Empowered Communities Program (ECP), the NEN was able to support the Brotherhood Way stakeholders in developing a preliminary community engagement plan. This plan outlined the need to partner with surrounding communities in order to ensure that any plans that are generated accommodate all of the stakeholders along the Brotherhood Way Corridor.
The Resilient Cayuga Resilience Action Plan development process is designed to provide all essential community stakeholder organizations an opportunity to contribute to the creation of a unifying Resilience Action Plan for the neighborhoods along the Brotherhood Way Corridor. As a partner community, Cayuga will be able to craft a customized resident planning process that reflects their location and availability.
In 2008, a group of leaders in the Diamond Heights community came together to explore ways to advance the disaster resilience of their community and took the name The Diamond Heights Disaster Ready Workgroup. While convening at St Aidan’s Church, the group partnered with organizations such as the Red Cross and SF CARD (Community Agencies Responding to Disaster), and designed and implemented a plan that gave them a deeper level of preparedness and capacity to succeed in times of stress.
In the summer of 2012, the Neighborhood Empowerment Network (NEN) was invited to present its Empowered Communities Program (ECP), which leverages the most current disaster resilience development data and advances FEMA’s Whole Community Approach. As a result of this orientation, and the acquisition of funding from the CDC Foundation and FEMA, the Diamond Heights Community agreed to move forward with a deployment of the NEN’s ECP and became known as Resilient Diamond Heights
Merced Extension Triangle
The Resilient Merced Extension Triangle Resilience Action Plan development process is designed to provide all essential community stakeholder organizations an opportunity to contribute to the creation of a unifying Resilience Action Plan for the neighborhoods along the Brotherhood Way Corridor. As a partner community, Merced Extension Triangle will be able to craft a customized resident planning process that reflects their location and availability.
Miraloma Park Improvement Club (MPIC) has partnered with the City’s Neighborhood Empowerment Network to create and implement a plan to strengthen our community so that during times of stress every resident will feel safe and empowered. MPIC is honored to have access to the expertise and resources of partners such as NERT, Neighborland, Nextdoor, SF PUC, SF DPH, HAS, SF State and the MIT Urban Risk Lab in crafting this strategy. The initiative, called Resilient Miraloma Park, is a highly focused, professionally facilitated process which is generating meaningful outcomes that MPIC is stewarding through implementation.
The Resilient OMI (ROMI) Resilience Action Plan development process is designed to provide all essential community stakeholder organizations an opportunity to contribute to the creation of a unifying Resilience Action Plan for the neighborhoods along the Brotherhood Way Corridor. Each partner community will be able to craft a customized resident planning process that reflects their location and availability.
In 2013 District 4 Supervisor Katy Tang launched an unprecedented initiative called the Sunset Blueprint project and over the course of the year she convened workshops on issues facing the community including land use, public transportation and economic development.
In 2014, Supervisor Tang’s Office partnered with the City’s Neighborhood Empowerment Network (NEN) to implement its Empowered Communities Program (ECP). The ECP is a community based planning process that convenes stakeholders and supports them as they participate in a series of workshops that ultimately generates Resilience Action Plan that will encapsulate the objectives outlined in the Sunset Blueprint. A program management team comprising of SF NERT, The City Administrator’s Office, The Dept. of Health, The Dept of Emergency Management and staff from Supervisor Tang’s Office created an initial community engagement plan that help guide the ECP’s deployment over the course of the next seven months. The initiative has been branded Resilient Sunset and on May 23rd 2015 the first community steering committee was convened. Over the course of the following few months the committee participated in a series of exercises that helped generate a district wide engagement plan that will advance the goals of the Sunset Blueprint.
Calendar of ECP Community Activities
ECP Program Overview
The ECP adds value to the current capacity building efforts by traditional emergency preparedness organizations by facilitating the development of a neighborhood action plan with broad stakeholder participation that advances a community’s overall resilience and generates long term ownership of its implementation.
Program Partners can include:
- Government Agencies – City Administrator’s Office, CERT, Dept. of Health, Dept. of Emergency Management, Police and Fire Agencies
- Non-Government – Red Cross, Universities, Foundations, Faith Based Organizations, Private Sector Lifeline Organizations
Key Program Tenets:
- The program area is defined at the neighborhood/geographical level
- Nurtures the creation of a community wide vision of resilience which is culturally competent and is customized to the unique goals and needs of the community
- Advances a culture of trust, ownership and cooperation within a community
- Coordinates capacity building organizations resources at individual, organizational and community levels simultaneously
- Advances FEMA’s Whole Community Approach by introducing capacity building organizations that are not identified as tradition disaster preparedness agencies (i.e. Universities)
- Prepares communities to respond to both large and small events in their neighborhood using methods such as the Incident Command System
- Creates an ideal climate to introduce programs such as the Neighborhood Support Center, NERT and Ready Neighborhoods
Projected Community Impacts:
- Communities will be more prepared at the individual, organizational and community levels to respond to challenges in a more coordinated fashion
- Communities will be better positioned to support the needs of the vulnerable members of their neighborhoods
- Communities will participate more effectively in mitigation efforts
- Communities will be better positioned to drive the re-activation of lifelines and other essential resources required to restore their local economy
The goal of ECP is to support a community as it advances towards a more resilient condition. This condition can be defined by following functional areas:
- Leadership / Governance – Increase the capacity of residents to lead their community under any circumstance in an inclusive manner
- Problem Solving – Increase the level of day-to-day cross sector coordination amongst local and external stakeholder organizations to manage short and long planning processes
- Communication – Increase the ability of the community to communicate both internally and externally
- Organizing – Provide neighborhood leaders with the skills to effectively engage and organize their residents on a sustained basis
- Fundraising and Financial Management – Train communities to be able to generate funds to advance their goals as well as the capacity to manage the money effectively in order to ensure long term partnerships with funders.
Program Benefits Summary
The ECP offers benefits to a wide variety of community stakeholders:
- Residents – Residents will benefit by having increased access to training as well as receive a higher level of support after the disaster
- Local Community Serving Organizations – Local organizations will have increased access to capacity building resources as well as develop a higher level of interoperability with neighboring institutions to meet the collective needs of the neighborhood in times of stress
- Disaster Resilience Capacity Building Organizations – Capacity building organizations will experience a higher level of outcomes from their programmatic investments by linking them laterally and vertically to the work of other organizations in the community
Neighborhoods with in a city can be as diverse as the residents who reside in them. Topography, physical layout, economic focus, the percentage of people who rent and the proximity to a University can all influence a community’s character. It is this character that determines the right approach for engaging a neighborhood to participate in the ECP. Generally communities fall into two categories:
- Type 1 – Neighborhoods rich in professionally managed service delivery organizations (CBOs & Faith Based Organizations) and have a higher density of at risk residents
- Type 2 – Neighborhoods that have a low density of professionally managed service delivery organizations and are stewarded by volunteer organizations (i.e. neighborhood and merchant associations) who serve a population that has a significant percentage of vulnerable residents
In both neighborhoods all stakeholders will be engaged, both professional and volunteer, however the density of organizational type offers a roadmap for the ECP to follow in order to achieve its programmatic goals.
In type 1 neighborhoods, professionally managed organizations offer the following:
- Preparing to respond to a disaster and meet the needs of local residents is often an identified, or implied, element of an organization’s mission
- Since the organizations have continuity of operations plans (COOPs) in varying stages of development, it is possible to enhance them to include functional roles in a neighborhood wide response to a disaster and perhaps expand their capacity to host a Neighborhood Support Center
- The density of these organizations often indicates that there is a large population of residents who are in need of services on a daily basis and therefore may also be members of communities which are poorly positioned financially to prepare themselves with traditional emergency preparedness assets (i.e. a kit comprising of equipment and supplies to support themselves for 72 hours)
- These organizations tend to be more stable and remain actors in the neighborhood for a longer period of time in relation to the historical turnover rate we see in San Francisco’s resident population, therefore offering a higher return on investment of capacity building resources
In type 2 neighborhoods, the volunteer managed associations offer the following:
- The ability to work directly with the leaders of a community and the residents of their neighborhood
- The opportunity to leverage previous capacity building efforts in the neighborhood (NERT, SF SAFE)
Launching the ECP
Using an asset based organizing; the NEN’s ECP Project Team aligns its members in reflection of the type of neighborhood it will be engaging.
Type 1 – In a Type 1 neighborhood the project team assembles key local professionally managed organizations and introduces the ECP opportunity by leveraging its political, social and financial assets. Ultimately this affords the ECP the ability to roll out in a faster, more uniform fashion across a neighborhood.
Type 2 – In a Type 2 neighborhood the effort to initiate the ECP program must be done in a more nuanced bottom up approach. Given the key actors are predominantly volunteer managed organizations, it is essential to engage the local leadership in a conversation regarding their goals and priorities while assessing their capacity to be able to participate in the program. While the ECP can ultimately achieve programmatic goals in a type 2 neighborhood, the process of supporting the community as it works towards them could take longer and require additional technical support.
ECP Process Map
Projected Programmatic Outcomes
The ECP can initiate outcomes such as:
- A Lifelines Resilience Development Plan
- An Economic Recovery Framework
- A Locally Designed and Managed Care & Shelter Plan
- A Neighborhood Wide Response Plan
- Deployment of Neighborhood Support Centers
The Empowered Communities Program (ECP) is designed not to duplicate existing capacity building efforts but rather support and enhance them by offering a platform that generates a higher level of stakeholder participation. By engaging the community in a process that empowers it to identify likely threats, and their projected impact on residents, the ECP offers them a vehicle to craft a culturally competent mitigation and response strategy. This process generates an essential level of ownership that will advance the likelihood that any plans/frameworks that are generated will remain a viable element of the community’s resilience efforts in the future.